The word has been used by the unlikeliest of people to express their abhorrence at US government actions. But there is not always clarity as to what imperialism means at the beginning of the 21st century. To some it represents simply a grab for profitable raw materials or investment which the system as a whole could manage without, or a drive to increase the profits of just one section of the US ruling class, the military-industrial complex.
Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Education played an important role in shaping the man who then stood at the pinnacle of power.
Just as communist cadres would have a profound influence on subsequent Chinese history, so they themselves had been influenced by their schooling.
Many important communist leaders, including Cai Hesen and Mao Zedong, had been educated at the Hunan First Normal School in Changsha, the capital city of Hunan province, in the second decade of the twentieth century. How could this apparently ordinary normal school have fostered so many radical intellectuals who became early leaders of Chinese Communism?
To answer these questions, we must explore the link between the reorganization of the educational system and the growth of communism. We must examine the backgrounds not only of those radical students who formed the first generation of communist leadership but also of their teachers, the intellectual reformers, the curriculum of the school, its environment, the political and social forces in the school and in the surrounding city, and the contribution of these factors to the transformation in the thinking of radical students.
The effect of that educational experience would have worldwide ramifications. The origins of that educational experience lay in the reform movement in Hunan during the last decade of the nineteenth century, in the conservative opposition to reformist ideas, and in the nationalism that developed in response to the intrusion of foreign influence into Hunan.
Reform Reaches Hunan, — The Chinese people are well known for their great cultural pride. Chinawith its vast territory, large population, and long history, was the core civilization in East Asia for centuries.
It served as a role model for its neighboring nations in cultural affairs, politics, institutions, and economics. In the middle of the nineteenth century, however, Chinese pride was seriously shaken by a series of humiliating foreign military incursions, beginning with the Opium War of — As a result, China was forced to sign the humiliating Treaty of Shimonoseki, which clearly exposed the weakness of the Qing regime, and infuriated the nation.
It also greatly shattered national prestige and traditional self-confidence. They made Chinese intellectuals pay serious attention to the reform of their country with the goal of standing up to the imperialist powers.
Chinese intellectuals realized that if China were to survive in the modern world, it would have to relinquish some of the old and assimilate some of the new.
In Hunan, the reforms began inthree years before the Hundred Days Reform. The reforms in Hunan were encouraged, as Charlton M. Lewis points out, by a fortunate combination of reform-minded officials. First, Zhang Zhidong —the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei from to 15 Reform in Hunan promoted educational, railway, mining, and industrial projects.
He had close connections with a number of reform-minded officials and elites in Hunan. He worked closely with Chen Baozhen —who served If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE, click 'Authenticate'.
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up to the imperialist powers. Chinese intellectuals realized that if China power in local government. For instance, they invested heavily in new industrial enterprises. During the era of New Imperialism, the Western powers (and Japan) individually conquered almost all of Africa and parts of it was in the European powers' interest to have a weak but independent Chinese government.
Hobson's analysis fails to explain colonial expansion on the part of less industrialized nations with little surplus capital. The Effects of British Imperialism in India - The Effects of British Imperialism in India One could approach this topic from two points of view; the British and the Indian.
One could choose either party and find very different opinions. * The Chinese political and social order is at its height in this "late imperial" period of the last two dynasties: the examination system has, from the Tang dynasty onward, created a strong centralized and fully functional civil service in place of an aristocratic elite with a territorial base of power.
Addiction to opium made Chinese lazy and cowardly. In another War with Japan, China was defeated in China had to part with a large part of her territory to Japan. The Chinese revolted against the Government which was forcibly crushed with the help of foreign .
Although cartographic processes advanced through imperialism, further analysis of their progress a foreign government's control over another country or over conquered territory that was previously without a unified government, "imperialism" is In , Americans who opposed imperialism created the Anti-Imperialist League to oppose.