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Current issues in agricultural development The country: The second most populous African country after Nigeria, Ethiopia has a population of The main characteristic of the climate is its erratic rainfall patterns. The southwest highlands receive the highest average rainfall, while precipitation decreases towards the northeast and the east.
Even in areas with a high mean annual rainfall, the variations can be extreme. Chronically drought-prone areas cover almost 50 percent of the country's total area and affect about 20 million people.
Disaster management in Ethiopia: Drought was at the root of at least ten famine episodes in the last 40 years which have affected large areas and significant portions of the population. In the last 20 years, the most serious droughts in terms of human suffering were those of and Agriculture accounts for 50 percent of the country's GDP and 90 percent of exports.
In terms of area under cultivation, cereals teff, maize, barley, wheat are the major crop category, followed by pulses horse beans, chickpeas, haricot beans and oilseeds mainly neug and linseed.
Coffee is the main export accounting for The smallholder sector accounts for 90 percent of the country's agricultural output. The average farm size is estimated to be between 1 and 1.
The overall growth of GDP during the s and s 1. Economic policies affecting agriculture The search for proximate causes of both agricultural and general economic stagnation in Ethiopia since the mids leads to a set of interrelated structural constraints and policy factors.
In addition to the harsh agroclimatic conditions, inadequate and poorly maintained infrastructure, environmental degradation and inadequate technology have contributed to the decline of agriculture. At the policy level, macroeconomic and sector-specific policies have contributed to the creation of a negative environment for agricultural growth.
The rise to power of the revolutionary government in marked the beginning of an era of tight direct government controls on the production and distribution systems. A brief description of the policies implemented as well as their effects help explain the nature and magnitude of the problems facing Ethiopia today.
In Ethiopia, macroeconomic policies have traditionally been characterized by prudent fiscal management. The fiscal deficit was kept at an average of 7 percent of GDP for most years between andwith the exception of drought years.
An aggressive policy of fiscal receipts prevented the deficits from ballooning. The budgetary effects of external shocks were mitigated by foreign disaster-relief flows.
In general, foreign flows of grants and loans left about half the deficit to be financed internally.
As the government avoided recourse to inflationary financing, average inflation was kept close to 9 percent during the 17 years ending in Ethiopia's economy in the s and framework for accelerated growth, Washington, DC. While a macroeconomic balance and price stability are necessary for growth, Ethiopia is an example of how these two factors may not be sufficient.Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.
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Economic Environment Defined. The economic environment consists of external factors in a business market and the broader economy that can influence a business. You can divide the economic. Table 1 indicates that FDI inflows as a percentage of GDP using five-year averages since has never surpassed 2%.
It should be noted that between and , FDI inflows to GDP fluctuated between % and % (Wöcke and Sing, ).Further, the annual growth between and was a negative % and it slightly improved in to % growth. Sep 19, · New Census data shows the national gender pay gap remains stagnant at 77 cents, but on the state level there's beginning to be signs of movement.
Here, a . According to The Star on 23 rd Oct , the Malaysia‟s unemployment rate slightly increased up to % in August from % in July , while compared to % in August last year. The number of Malaysia‟s unemployment rate in August increased by . Get Full Text in PDF.
Table of Contents. Introduction; Tools and Measures; Measures of National Income; Need for New Theory; Measures and Indicators; Characteristics of a Successful Indicator.