Economic Fluctuations and GrowthLabor Studies As robots and other computer-assisted technologies take over tasks previously performed by labor, there is increasing concern about the future of jobs and wages. We analyze the effect of the increase in industrial robot usage between and on US local labor markets.
By No Author Click the image above to explore our census race categories interactive. But the ways in which race is asked about and classified have changed from census to census, as the politics and science of race have fluctuated.
And efforts to measure the multiracial population are still evolving. Beginning inAmericans could choose their own race.
Sincethey have had the option to identify with more than one. This change in census practice coincided with changed thinking about the meaning of race.
When marshals on horseback conducted the first census, race was thought to be a fixed physical characteristic. Racial categories reinforced laws and scientific views asserting white superiority.
Social scientists today generally agree that race is more of a fluid concept influenced by current social and political thinking.
Race and Hispanic origin data are used in the enforcement of equal employment opportunity and other anti-discrimination laws. When state officials redraw the boundaries of congressional and other political Research paper on race, they employ census race and Hispanic origin data to comply with federal requirements that minority voting strength not be diluted.
The census categories also are used by Americans as a vehicle to express personal identity. The most recent decennial census, inhad 63 possible race categories: These can then be mapped into racial groups.
By this metric, 4. A Pew Research analysis finds that the number of Americans with two different racial ancestries has more than doubled sincewhen the ancestry question was first asked.
This chapter explores the history of how the U. Readers should note that estimates here—as they are based on Census Bureau data—may differ from those derived from the Pew Research Center survey of multiracial Americans that will form the basis of the analysis for subsequent chapters of this report.
On the census form and current American Community Survey formsrespondents are first asked whether they are of Hispanic, Latino or Spanish origin and, if so, which origin—Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban or another Hispanic origin.
The next question asks them to mark one or more boxes to describe their race.
This two-question format was introduced inthe first year that a Hispanic category was included on all census forms. See below for more on the history of how the Census Bureau has counted Hispanics.
The change in policy to allow more than one race to be checked was the result of lobbying by advocates for multiracial people and families who wanted recognition of their identity.
The population of Americans with multiple racial or ethnic backgrounds has been growing due to repeal of laws banning intermarriage, changing public attitudes about mixed-race relationships and the rise of immigration from Latin America and Asia.
One important indicator is in the growth in interracial marriage: The share of married couples with spouses of different races increased nearly fourfold from 1.
For the census, the Census Bureau is considering a new approach to asking U.The gender wage gap in weekly earnings for full-time workers in the US did not improve between and In , the ratio of women’s to men’s median weekly full-time earnings was percent, a decrease of percentage points since Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States: An Intergenerational Perspective Raj Chetty, Stanford University and NBER Nathaniel Hendren, Harvard .
Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States Executive Summary The Equality of Opportunity Project 2 Hispanic Americans have rates of upward income mobility. What Is an eNotes Research Paper Starter? When you don’t know where or how to start your research paper, dive into an eNotes Research Paper Starter.
We clearly explain and analyze over 1, THE EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY PROJECT Race and Economic Opportunity in the United States Executive Summary Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, Maggie Jones, and . One “extreme example of inconsistency in the classification by race over time,” described in a Census Bureau working paper, is that a person counted as an Asian Indian since could have been classified three other ways in earlier censuses: Hindu in , “other race” in and white in