Soon afterwards, under Clement VIII, and before the present building was finished, this became the principal residence of the Popes. It continued as such untiland has since then been the official if not the actual residence of both the Kings and the Presidents of Italy. The Popes retreated back to the Vatican and the Vatican Palace.
When the persecution ended, Christians who did so were called traditors —"those who handed the holy things over"—by their critics who were mainly from the poorer classes.
In Caecilian a new bishop of Carthage was consecrated by Felix of Aptungi, an alleged traditor. His opponents consecrated Majorinusa short-lived rival who was succeeded by Donatus. Two years later, a commission appointed by Pope Miltiades condemned the Donatists.
They persisted, seeing themselves as the true Church with valid sacraments. Because of their association with the Circumcellionsthe Donatists were repressed by Roman authorities. Although they had local support, their opponents were supported by Rome. The Donatists were still a force during the lifetime of Augustine of Hippoand disappeared only after the seventh- and eighth-century Muslim conquest.
The traditors had returned to positions of authority under Constantine I ; according to the Donatists, sacraments administered by the traditors were invalid. Whether the sacrament of Penance could reconcile a traditor to full communion was questioned, and the church's position was that the sacrament could.
The church still imposed years- sometimes decades- long public penance for serious sins. A penitent would first beg for the prayers of those entering a church from outside its doors. They would next be permitted to kneel inside the church during the Liturgy.
After being allowed to stand with the congregation, the penitent would finally be allowed to receive the Eucharist again.
According to the Donatists, serious sin would permanently disqualify a man from leadership. The validity of sacraments administered by priests and bishops who had been traditors was denied by the Donatists. A priest or bishop in a state of mortal sin could continue to administer valid sacraments.
Some towns had Donatist and orthodox congregations. Impact[ edit ] The sect developed and grew in North Africa, with unrest and threatened riots in Carthage connected to the bishop controversy.
Nothing was given to the Donatists; Constantine was apparently not fully aware of the seriousness of the dispute, which his gift exacerbated. The Donatists refused to abide by the decision of the Roman council, demanding that a local council adjudicate the dispute and appealing directly to Constantine.
In a surviving letter, a frustrated Constantine called for what became the first Council of Arles in The council ruled against the Donatists, who again appealed to Constantine. The emperor ordered all parties to Rome for a hearing, ruled in favor of Caecilian and warned against unrest.
The Donatists fomented protests and street violence,  refusing to compromise in favor of the Catholic bishop. After the Constantinian shiftwhen other Christians accepted the emperor's decision, the Donatists continued to demonize him. After several attempts at reconciliation, in Constantine issued an edict threatening death to anyone who disturbed the imperial peace; another edict followed, calling for the confiscation of all Donatist church property.
Donatus refused to surrender his buildings in Carthageand the local Roman governor sent troops to deal with him and his followers. Although the historical record is unclear, some Donatists were apparently killed and their clergy exiled.
Outside Carthage, Donatist churches and clergy were undisturbed. According to Augustine and the church, the validity of sacraments was a property of the priesthood independent of individual character.
Influenced by the Old Testamenthe believed in discipline as a means of education.Catechism of Christian Doctrine (Penny Catechism) - Catholic Bishops' Conference of England & Wales, Department for Christian Responsibility and Citizenship, Healthcare Referen.
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