Constructivism and Social Constructivism in the Classroom General Overview In the constructivist classroom, the focus tends to shift from the teacher to the students.
Developments in design of such materials seem to have followed shifts in the dominant paradigms within psychology.
Early computer-based materials are seen to be influenced by behaviorist concepts while discovery learning materials are felt to be founded on later cognitive models of information processing and constructivism.
Designers are adopting a mixed approach to design because it offers complete flexibility Atkins, For example, some business and industry designers reveal a blending of analysis and evaluation of the objectivist approach with simulations and individualized progress of constructivist approaches Dick, Intuition and creativity have played major roles in the development and implementation of constructivist learning environments Dick, for a reason.
Until the appearance of the Recursive and Reflective, Design and Development R2D2 model by Willisthere had been almost no articles detailing explicit alternatives to the Dick and Carey objectivist model to help designers create instructional materials based on constructivist theory.
Park and Hannafin indicated that the psychological foundation, in general, focuses on how learners think, learn, and process information and is largely media-independent.
This foundation is based on research and theory on meaningful learning, schema theory, prior knowledge, hierarchical cognitive structure, elaboration, depth of processing, generative learning, situated learning, conceptual models and metaphors, and dual coding theory.
The technological foundation addresses the potential of technology to redefine teaching and learning, the capabilities of specific multimedia technologies, and the capabilities and limitations of interactive multimedia technology.
This article explores behaviorist and cognitive approaches to interactive multimedia instructional design ID and delves into the foundations noted in Park and Hannafin Basic concepts of each approach, characteristics of ID, and similarities and differences between each will be discussed. Interface design guidelines for learning with multimedia will be presented, which link theory with practice in effective multimedia ID.
The primary tenet of behaviorism is that there is a predictable and reliable link between a stimulus and the response it produces. If behavior is predictable, designers need to identify subskills students must master that lead to a learned behavior, and then select stimuli and presentation strategies that build the subskills.
A major assumption is that learners are not just passive entities who react to environmental stimuli.
Learners learn by doing, experiencing, and engaging in trial and error. What has been learned, under what conditions, and the consequences that support or maintain the learned behavior all work together, and must be observable and measurable.
A second assumption of behaviorism is that learning is a change in behavior due to experience and a function of building associations between the occasion on which the behavior occurs stimulus event and the behavior itself response event.
Repeated continuous pairing of the stimulus with the response strengthens learning. To change behavior in an educational setting, learners must be assessed for their needs and capabilities so that instruction is appropriate and meaningful.
Observable goals can then be written. Learning tasks are ordered logically according to a hierarchy. Reinforcement, which is contingent on successful achievement at each stage, maintains previously learned behaviors Burton et al.
Atkins noted behaviorist ID characteristics with respect to subject matter, sequencing, learner control, and learning.
Those are described in the following sections. Subject Matter Material is broken down into small, logically discrete instructional steps and is often presented as a rule, category, principle, formula or definition.
Positive examples are given to reinforce understanding, followed by negative examples to establish conceptual boundaries. Activities are sequenced for increasing difficulty or complexity. The sequence and pacing through the material is usually without learner control. To maximize learning efficiency, learners may be routed to miss or repeat certain sections of material based on performance on a diagnostic test, or on tests within the sequence of learning activities.
The amount of practice or revision they require may also vary based on performance. Learning The required operation, procedure, or skill is demonstrated and broken down into its parts with appropriate explanation before learners are expected to copy the desired behavior.
Performance standards are made explicit. Learners build proficiency from frequent review or revision with check tests at strategic points or repeat practice with feedback. Design emphasizes low error rate and use of remedial loops back through material, if learner test performance seems to warrant it.
Extrinsic or intrinsic reinforcement messages are used to maintain motivation. Atkins concluded that a structured, deductive approach to design multimedia applications can lead to rapid acquisition of basic concepts, skills, and factual information within a clear framework.
The effectiveness of behavioral design approaches for higher-order learning tasks or for transfer of learning is yet unproven, however.
The diversity is often grouped into two trends:Piaget's theory of constructivist learning has had wide-ranging impact on learning theories and teaching methods in education, and is an underlying theme of education reform movements.
[ citation needed ] Research support for constructivist teaching techniques has been mixed, with some research supporting these techniques and other research. Effective writing skills are considered to be indispensable to participate in contemporary society.
Despite its importance, there is considerable concern about writing instruction and the writing skills of . Sociocultural theory and the teaching of second languages. actual sociocultural contexts.
Moreover, it highlights the critical role of follow-up support systems in sustaining the effectiveness of teacher education. Sociocultural and Constructivist Theories of Learning: Ontology, Not Just Epistemology. Learning Theories Learning theories are an organized set of principles explaining how individuals acquire, retain, and recall knowledge.
By studying and knowing the different learning theories, we can better understand how learning occurs. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY INTERACTIVE Readings in Educational Psychology.
Developed by: W. Huitt Last updated: August Constructivist learning theory places the student at the center of the learning experience with teacher's acting as learning guides.
There are some benefits from this teaching method you may want to employ in your classroom, however, there are significant disadvantages as well.